Mark Rahdert (Temple University – James E. Beasley School of Law) has posted Court Reform and Breathing Space Under the Establishment Clause. The abstract follows.
Flast v. Cohen held that federal taxpayers have standing to challenge government spending for religion. While Frothingham v. Mellon generally prohibits taxpayer standing in federal courts, the Court reasoned that the Establishment Clause specifically prohibits taxation in any amount to fund unconstitutional religious spending. For several decades Flast has been settled law that supplied jurisdiction in many leading establishment cases. But Hein v. Freedom from ReligionFoundation, Inc. and Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn signal that Flast may soon be overruled. This jurisdictional ferment raises two questions: Why this sudden shift? And what does it signify for the Establishment Clause?
Munir Ahmad Mughal (Punjab University Law College; Superior Law College; LIMIT Law College, Lahore) has posted Islamic Concepts of Human Rights. The abstract follows.
This paper deals with the Islamic concept of Human Rights with special reference to its application in Pakistan. It is heartening that the United Nations Organization is taking all such steps which are enunciated by Islam for the betterment and welfare of mankind and its dignity.
In this paper, judgements of Supreme Court of Pakistan, Federal Shariat Court and High Courts of all the provinces have also been added for facilitation of further research by all those who are interested to work for the human rights and the fundamental rights.
This is an informative short interview that I heard yesterday on NPR concerning the rise to political power of the Alawites in Syria, of whom current President Bashar Assad is a member. The Alawites, as Steven Heydemann explains, were once a marginalized minority Shia sect, but they were recruited for military purposes by the French during the period of French occupation of Syria (1920-1946). It was during this period that the Alawites began to move from outsider group to a position of greater political and military strength.